This blog contains regular postings relating to the Traditional Latin Liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church. It includes regular commentary on the saints days and the liturgical cycle, with brief background and extracts from the liturgy both in Latin and English. Much of the material has been extracted from the 'St Andrew's Daily Missal', Dom Gueranger's 'Liturgical Year', or similar sources.

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Wednesday 19 January 2011

Latina Vulgata: Latin Words no. 8.

Aemulatio/aemulationis (f) - zeal, jealousy.

A feminine noun of the third declension. Two slightly different meanings. It can mean 'zeal' or keenness; or it can have overtones of jealousy and envy.

Related to the English word 'emulation', which nowadays tends to mean 'trying to equal by imitation' but has an older meaning also of 'jealous rivalry'.

Scio enim promptum animum vestrum: pro quo de vobis glorior apud Macedonas. Quoniam Achaia parata est ab anno praeterito, et vestra aemulatio provocavit plurimos.
For I know your forward mind: for which I boast of you to the Macedonians. That Achaia also is ready from the year past, and your emulation [zeal] hath provoked very many.
2 Corinthians 9:2. Used here to mean zeal.

Testimonium enim perhibeo illis, quod aemulationem Dei habent, sed non secundum scientiam.
For I bear them witness, that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge.
Romans 10:2. Once again, zeal.

Sicut in die honeste ambulemus: non in comesationibus et ebrietatibus, non in cubilibus et inpudicitiis, non in contentione et aemulatione.
Let us walk honestly, as in the day: not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and impurities, not in contention and envy.
Romans 13:13. Here it means jealousy or envy.

Sed dico: numquid Israel non cognovit? Primus Moses dicit: ego ad aemulationem vos adducam in non gentem; in gentem insipientem in iram vos mittam.
But I say: Hath not Israel known? First, Moses saith: I will provoke you to jealousy by that which is not a nation; by a foolish nation I will anger you.
Romans 10:19. Jealousy.

Related forms

1. aemulator/aemulatoris (m) - zealous observer or imitator.

Et proficiebam in Judaismo supra multos coetaneos in genere meo, abundantius aemulator existens paternarum mearum traditionum.
And I made progress in the Jews' religion above many of my equals in my own nation, being more abundantly zealous for the traditions of my fathers.
Galatians 1:14.

2. aemulor/aemulari/aemulatum - to be zealous for, to be desirous of; or to be jealous. A deponent verb of the 1st declension.

Aemulantur vos non bene: sed excludere vos volunt, ut illos aemulemini. Bonum autem aemulamini in bono semper: et non tantum cum praesens sum apud vos.
They are zealous in your regard not well: but they would exclude you, that you might be zealous for them. But be zealous for that which is good in a good thing always: and not only when I am present with you.
Galatians 4:17-18. Three uses in the same passage. The first is present indicative; the second is present subjunctive as part of a causal clause; the third is a present imperative

Et patriarchae aemulantes Ioseph vendiderunt in Aegyptum et erat Deus cum eo.

Acts 7:9. Present participle. Meaning of 'being jealous of'.

Aemulor enim vos Dei aemulatione. Despondi enim vos uni viro virginem castam exhibere Christo.
For I am jealous of you with the jealousy of God. For I have espoused you to one husband that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ.
2 Corinthians 11:2. Present tense. Despite the translation, the meaning is more zeal than envy.
And the patriarchs, through envy, sold Joseph into Egypt; and God was with him.

Sunday 16 January 2011

Latin of the Introits. Second Sunday after Epiphany - Omnis terra adoret Te.

Today's introit is taken from Psalm 65.

Omnis terra adoret Te, Deus, et psallat Tibi: psalmum dicat nomini tuo, Altissime. * Jubilate Deo, omnis terra, psalmum dicite nomini ejus: date gloriam laudi ejus.
Let all the earth adore Thee, O God, and sing to Thee: let it sing a psalm to Thy name, O most High. * Shout with joy to God, all the earth, sing ye a psalm to His name: give glory to His praise.

Omnis - all. Agrees with terra, which it modifies.
terra - land or earth. Subject of the verb adoret.
adoret - may it adore. The verb is adoro/adorare/adoravi/adoratum. This is the subjunctive, indicating wish or desire.
Te - Thee/you. Accusative case, since it is the direct object of the verb adoret.
Deus - O God. Vocative case, since God is being addressed.

et - and
psallat - may it sing. Subjunctive of the verb psallo/psallere which means to psalm or to sing with the harp.
Tibi - to Thee. Dative case.

psalmum - a psalm. Accusative case, as direct object of the verb dicat.
dicat - May it say. Subjunctive of the verb dico/dicere/dixi/dictum - to say. The subject of the verb is still terra.
nomini - to the name. Dative of nomen - name.
tuo - Thy/your. Dative to agree with nomini, which it modifies.
Altissime - O most high. Vocative case since it is an address. Altus is high. Altissimus is the superlative form - indicating most high or very high or highest. See grammatical note below.

Jubilate - Rejoice (plural form). Imperative form of the verb jubilo/jubilare/jubilavi/jubilatum, indicating a direct command.
Deo - to God. Dative case of Deus.
omnis - all. Modifies terra.
terra - land or earth. Vocative case.

psalmum - a psalm. As before.
dicite- say (plural). Imperative form of the verb dico. In the previous sentence dicat was used; here there is a direct command.
nomini - to the name. As above.
ejus - his or of him.

date - give (plural). Imperative of the verb do/dare/dedi/datum - I give.
gloriam - glory. Accusative case as direct object of the verb date.
laudi - to the praise. Dative case of laus/laudis - praise.
ejus - his.

Grammatical Note - Comparison of Adjectives.

There was an example of a superlative form in this introit - altissimus, meaning most high or very high.

Comparison of adjectives has three forms - standard, comparative, and superlative.

Altus - high
Altior - higher or quite high.
Altissimus - highest or very high.

The endings -ior and -issimus are characteristic of the comparative and superlative forms, though these do decline (change slightly their endings) like other adjectives, depending on the gender, number and case of the noun that is being modified. So in the introit, we actually have Altissime, since it is vocative case - O most high.

Some adjectives don't compare regularly. A good example is bonus - good.

Bonus - good
Melior - better or quite good.
Optimus - Best or very good.

Latina Vulgata: Latin Words no. 7.

Adversor/adversari/adversatum - to resist, be contrary to

A deponent verb (passive in form, but active in meaning) of the first declension.

Derived from the preposition ad and the verb versor - passive of verso - which has the sense to stay, to live, to dwell.

Any object is in the dative, as will be seen in the examples.

Link with the English words, 'adverse' or 'adversary'.

Caro enim concupiscit adversus spiritum: spiritus autem adversus carnem; haec enim invicem adversantur: ut non quaecumque vultis illa faciatis.
For the flesh lusteth against the spirit: and the spirit against the flesh; for these are contrary one to another: so that you do not the things that you would.
Galatians 5:17 - present tense.

Qui et Dominum occiderunt Jesum, et prophetas, et nos persecuti sunt, et Deo non placent, et omnibus hominibus adversantur.

Who both killed the Lord Jesus, and the prophets, and have persecuted us, and please not God, and are adversaries to all men.
1 Thess 2:15 - present tense. Omnibus hominibus is in the dative.
Qui adversatur, et extollitur supra omne quod dicitur Deus, aut quod colitur, ita ut in templo Dei sedeat, ostendens se quia sit Deus.
Who opposeth, and is lifted up above all that is called God, or that is worshipped, so that he sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself as if he were God.
2 Thess 2:4 - present tense.

Fornicariis, masculorum concubitoribus, plagiariis, mendacibus, perjuris, et si quid aliud sanae doctrinae adversatur.

For fornicators, for them who defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and whatever other thing is contrary to sound doctrine.
1 Timothy 1:10 - present tense. Sanae doctrinae is in the dative.

Videns ergo Noemi quod obstinato Ruth animo decrevisset secum pergere, adversari noluit, nec ultra ad suos reditum persuadere.
Then Noemi, seeing that Ruth was steadfastly determined to go with her, would not be against it, nor persuade her any more to return to her friends.
Ruth 1:18 - present infinitive of the verb, used with noluit.

Non supergaudeant mihi qui adversantur mihi inique: qui oderunt me gratis et annuunt oculis.
Let not them that are my enemies wrongfully rejoice over me: who have hated me without cause, and wink with the eyes.
Psalms 34:19 - present tense. Mihi is in the dative.

Thursday 13 January 2011

Latina Vulgata: Latin Words no. 6

Adulescens/adulescentis (m) - young man.

Adolescens is a variant spelling.

A noun of the third declension, masculine, meaning young man. It is, in fact, the present participle of the verb adulesco - to grow, grow up.

Clear connection with the English word 'adolescent'.

Dicit illi adulescens: omnia haec custodivi quid adhuc mihi deest.
The young man saith to him: All these have I kept from my youth, what is yet wanting to me?
Matthew 19:20. Nominative case.

Et accessit et tetigit loculum. Hi autem qui portabant steterunt. Et ait: adulescens tibi dico surge.
And he came near and touched the bier. And they that carried it stood still. And he said: Young man, I say to thee, arise.
Luke 7:14. Vocative case.

Adulescens autem quidam sequebatur illum, amictus sindone super nudo. Et tenuerunt eum.
And a certain young man followed him, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body. And they laid hold on him.
Mark 14:51. Nominative case.

The comparative form adulescentior, meaning the younger, appears a couple of times in the Vulgate, either as a noun or as an adjective.

Et dixit adulescentior ex illis patri pater da mihi portionem substantiae quae me contingit et divisit illis substantiam.
And the younger of them said to his father: Father, give me the portion of substance that falleth to me. And he divided unto them his substance.
Luke 15:12. Used as a noun in the nominative case.

Adulescentiores autem viduas devita. Cum enim luxuriatae fuerint in Christo, nubere volunt.
But the younger widows avoid. For when they have grown wanton in Christ, they will marry:
1 Timothy 5:11. Used as an adjective to qualify viduas.

Related form - adulescentia/ae (f), which means youth - not an individual youth, but youth in the abstract.

Nemo adulescentiam tuam contemnat sed exemplum esto fidelium in verbo in conversatione in caritate in fide in castitate.
Let no man despise thy youth: but be thou an example of the faithful, in word, in conversation, in charity, in faith, in chastity.
1 Timothy 4:12. Accusative case.

Related form - adulescentula/ae (f) - young woman.

Ut prudentiam doceant adulescentulas, ut viros suos ament filios diligant.
That they may teach the young women to be wise, to love their husbands, to love their children.
Titus 2:4. Accusative plural.

Monday 10 January 2011

The Latin of the Introits, The Holy Family - Exsultat gaudio.

The first part of today's introit is taken from the book of Proverbs, chapter 23, and the second part is from the opening of Psalm 83.

Exsultat gaudio pater Justi, gaudeat Pater tuus et Mater tua, et exsultet quae genuit te. * Quam dilecta tabernacula tua, Domine virtutum: concupiscit et deficit anima mea in atria Domini.
The father of the just rejoiceth greatly, let Thy father and Thy mother be joyful, and let her rejoice that bore Thee. * How lovely are Thy tabernacles, O Lord of Hosts! my soul longeth an fainteth for the courts of the Lord.

Exsultat - He rejoices or exults. Indicative of the verb exsulto/exsultare/exsultavi/exsultatum.
gaudio - with joy. Ablative case. The sentence reads 'he rejoices with joy' which may be be translated more idiomatically as 'may he rejoice greatly.'
pater - the father. Nominative case, as subject of the verb exsultat.
Justi - of the just. Genitive case, indicating possession.

gaudeat - May he rejoice. Subjunctive of the verb gaudeo/gaudere/gavisi/gavisum.
Pater - Father. Subject of the verb gaudeat.
tuus - your/thy. Modifying Pater, and agreeing with it in gender.
et - and
Mater - Mother.
tua - your/thy. Modifying Mater, and agreeing with it in gender.

et - and
exsultet - may she rejoice. Subjunctive of the verb exsulto.
quae - who. This is the feminine form of the relative pronoun qui, which is why the verb was translated may 'she' rejoice.
genuit - she gave birth. Perfect tense, indicating completed past action, of the verb geneo/genere/genui/genitum.
te - to you/to thee. Ablative case used with genuit.

Quam - How
dilecta - lovely. Ending agrees with tabernacula, which it modifies.
The verb sunt - are - is implied here.
tabernacula - tabernacles (tents). Nominative plural.
tua - your/thy. Ending to agree with tabernacula, which it modifies.
Domine - O Lord. Vocative case.
virtutum - genitive plural of virtus, indicating possession. Virtus can mean virtue, goodness, bravery, manliness. The plural is often translated as 'hosts' as in 'armies' or possibly the heavenly host.
concupiscit - it longs. Indicative of the verb concupisco/concupiscere/concupisci.
et - and.
deficit - it faints or fails. Indicative of the verb deficio/deficere/defici/defectum.
anima - soul. Subject of the verbs concupiscit and deficit.
mea - my. Agrees in gender and case with anima, which it modifies.
in - in. Is followed by a noun in the accusative case when it indicates motion into.
atria - courts or halls. Plural of atrium. In the accusative case.
Domini - of the Lord. Genitive, indicating possession.

Latina Vulgata: Latin Words no. 5

Adsto/adstare/adstiti - to stand near, stand up

Intransitive verb of the first declension. The perfect tense doesn't form in the usual way that would be expected of the first declension, but there is 'reduplication' of the consonant.

It is formed from the preposition ad (towards) and the verb sto (I stand).

The original verb sto and its parts have many links to English - stand, status, statue, ...

Though adsto conveys the sense of 'standing near' or' standing up', rather than just 'standing', in many cases of use it seems that either adsto or sto could have been used. What should be avoided is using adsto for 'standing afar off.'

Cumque intuerentur in caelum eunte illo ecce duo viri adstiterunt iuxta illos in vestibus albis.
And while they were beholding him going up to heaven, behold two men stood by them in white garments.
Acts 1:10 - Perfect tense. Nice example of standing near.

Notum sit omnibus vobis, et omni plebi Israel, quia in nomine Jesu Christi Nazareni, quem vos crucifixistis, quem Deus suscitavit a mortuis, in hoc iste adstat coram vobis sanus
Be it known to you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom you crucified, whom God hath raised from the dead, even by him this man standeth here before you whole.
Acts 4:10 - present tense.

At ille iterum negavit, et post pusillum rursus qui adstabant dicebant Petro: vere ex illis es nam et Galilaeus es.
But he denied again. And after a while they that stood by said again to Peter: Surely thou art one of them; for thou art also a Galilean.
St Mark 14:70 - imperfect tense.

Et respondens angelus dixit ei: ego sum Gabriel, qui adsto ante Deum: et missus sum loqui ad te, et haec tibi evangelizare.
And the angel answering, said to him: I am Gabriel, who stand before God: and am sent to speak to thee, and to bring thee these good tidings.
St Luke 1:19 - present tense.

Adstiterunt reges terrae et principes convenerunt in unum adversus Dominum et adversus Christum ejus.
The kings of the earth stood up, and the princes met together, against the Lord and against his Christ.
Psalm 2:2 - perfect tense.

Friday 7 January 2011

Latina Vulgata: Latin Words no. 4

Applico/applicare/applicavi or applicui/applicatum or applicitum - to attach, place close to, to put in to shore.

Verb of the first declension, although as may be seen it can also form its past tenses following the pattern of the third conjugation. Using third conjugation past tenses is standard in the Vulgate, and later Latin in general.

It is formed from the preposition ad (towards) and the verb plico (to fold or coil). Adplico is an alternative spelling.

The English word 'apply' is related.

The two instances in the New Testament both refer to the nautical use - putting into shore. In the Old Testament, it is used multiple times, and in the wider sense of bringing close.

Et cum transfretassent, pervenerunt in terram Gennesareth et adplicuerunt.
And when they had passed over, they came into the land of Genezareth, and set to the shore.
St Mark 6:53 - perfect tense (following pattern of 3rd conjugation)

Et inde navigantes sequenti die venimus contra Chium; et alia adplicuimus Samum; et sequenti venimus Miletum.
And sailing thence, the day following we came over against Chios; and the next day we arrived at Samos; and the day following we came to Miletus.
Acts 20:15 - perfect tense (following pattern of 3rd conjugation)

Cumque corruerint sublevabuntur auxilio parvulo et adplicabuntur eis plurimi fraudulenter.
And when they shall have fallen, they shall be relieved with a small help: and many shall be joined to them deceitfully.
Daniel 11:34 - future passive.

Ipse principium est viarum Dei qui fecit eum adplicabit gladium ejus.
He is the beginning of the ways of God, who made him, he will apply his sword.
Job 40:14 - future.

Et adplicuit Samuel omnes tribus Israel et cecidit sors tribus Benjamin.
And Samuel brought to him all the tribes of Israel, and the lot fell on the tribe of Benjamin.
1 Kings 10:20 (or 1 Samuel 10:20) - perfect tense.

Wednesday 5 January 2011

Latina Vulgata: Latin Words no. 3

admiror/admirari/admiratum - I wonder/marvel at.

This is a verb of the 1st conjugation. It is a deponent verb; it is active in meaning, but passive in its inflection. It is a transitive verb, so can take a direct object in the accusative case. It appears more common, though, for it to be used intransitively - simply "they wondered" - or for a preposition to follow it. Using a preposition instead of a direct object is a common tendency in Ecclesiastical Latin.

It is a compound of the preposition ad with the verb miror. Miror also means to wonder, and in its usage seems not to differ from admiror, though it is far less common.

According to Lewis and Short, in classical Latin admirari means "to be in a state of mind in which something pleases us by its extraordinary greatness, its sublimity, or perfection; while mirari signifies to be surprised at, to have the feeling of the new, singular, unusual."

The English word 'admire' etc. is related.

Et facto sabbato coepit in synagoga docere et multi audientes admirabantur in doctrina eius.
And when the Sabbath was come, he began to teach in the synagogue: and many hearing him were in admiration at his doctrine.
St Mark 6:2 - imperfect tense, 'they were admiring'. Here it is followed by a preposition in + ablative.

Videntes autem Petri constantiam et Iohannis comperto quod homines essent sine litteris et idiotae admirabantur et cognoscebant eos quoniam cum Iesu fuerant.
Now seeing the constancy of Peter and of John, understanding that they were illiterate and ignorant men, they wondered: and they knew them that they had been with Jesus.
Acts 4:13 - again imperfect tense.

Et erat eiciens daemonium et illud erat mutum et cum eiecisset daemonium locutus est mutus et admiratae sunt turbae.
And he was casting out a devil: and the same was dumb. And when he had cast out the devil, the dumb spoke: and the multitudes, were in admiration at it.
St Luke 11:14 - perfect tense. 'They marvelled.'

Et unum de capitibus suis quasi occisum in mortem et plaga mortis eius curata est et admirata est universa terra post bestiam.
And I saw one of his heads as it were slain to death: and his death's wound was healed. And all the earth was in admiration after the beast.
Apocalypse 13:3 - perfect tense. Here is is followed by the preposition post + accusative.

Moses autem videns admiratus est visum et accedente illo ut consideraret facta est vox Domini.
And Moses seeing it wondered at the sight. And as he drew near to view it, the voice of the Lord came unto him.
Acts 7:31 - perfect tense. Here the verb is used transitively, with visum as its direct object.

Here is an example of the use of miror:

Miror quod sic tam cito transferimini ab eo qui vos vocavit in gratiam Christi in aliud evangelium.
I wonder that you are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ, unto another gospel.
Galatians 1:6 - present tense. Clearly there is an element of surprise here, rather than wonder or marvel at something great. This agrees with the distinction made by Lewis and Short.

Monday 3 January 2011

Latina Vulgata: Latin Words no. 2

Abscondo/abscondere/abscondi or abscondidi/absconditum - to hide, conceal carefully.

Verb of the third declension. The past participle absconditus is used as an adjective to mean hidden, concealed or secret.

Formed from the preposition abs (from) and the verb condo (to put away).

Lewis and Short comment that the idea of careful concealment distinguishes abscondo from other verbs like celo which also contain the idea of hiding.

Link with the English word 'abscond.'

Aliam parabolam locutus est eis simile est regnum caelorum fermento quod acceptum mulier abscondit in farinae satis tribus donec fermentatum est totum.
Another parable he spoke to them: The kingdom of heaven is like to leaven, which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal, until the whole was leavened.
S. Matt 13:33 - Perfect tense

Manifesto ergo vobis veritatem et non abscondam a vobis sermonem occultum.
I discover then the truth unto you, and I will not hide the secret from you.
Tobias 12:11 - Future tense

Ne videaris hominibus ieiunans sed Patri tuo qui est in abscondito et Pater tuus qui videt in abscondito reddet tibi.
That thou appear not to men to fast, but to thy Father who is in secret: and thy Father who seeth in secret, will repay thee.
S. Matt 6:18 - Past participle. The meaning here is 'in a hidden or secret place'.

Sed qui in abscondito Iudaeus et circumcisio cordis in spiritu non littera cuius laus non ex hominibus sed ex Deo est.
But he is a Jew that is one inwardly and the circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter: whose praise is not of men, but of God.
Romans 2:29 - Past participle. Translated as 'inwardly', but could have been 'in secret'.

Sunday 2 January 2011

The Latin of the Introits, The Holy Name of Jesus - In nomine Jesu

Today's introit is taken partly from St Paul's letter to the Philippians, chapter 2, along with a verse from Psalm 8.

In nomine Jesu omne genu flectatur, coelestium, terrestrium, et infernorum: et omnis lingua confiteatur, quia Dominus Jesus Christus in gloria est Dei Patris. * Domine Dominus noster: quam admirabile est nomen tuum in universa terra!
In the Name of Jesus let every knee bow, of those that are in heaven, on earth, and under the earth: and let every tongue confess that the Lord Jesus Christ is in the glory of God the Father. * O Lord our Lord: how admirable is Thy Name in the whole earth!

In - In. Preposition which is followed by the ablative when it indicates fixed state or location.
nomine - the name. Name is nomen. Ablative case here, following in.
Jesu - Of Jesus. Genitive case. Jesus is treated as a 4th declension noun, with genitive Jesu, showing possession.
omne - all. The ending is neuter, to go with genu.
genu - knee. Subject of the verb flectatur. Nominative case.
flectatur - may it bend. The verb is flecto/flectere/flexi/flectum - to bend. Here with have a passive subjunctive. Passive since something is being done to the knee; subjunctive since it is a wish or desire.
coelestium - of things in heaven. Genitive plural of coelestis - something heavenly.
terrestrium - of things on earth. Genitive plural of terrestris - something earthly.
et - and.
infernorum - of things in the underworld. Genitive plural of infernus, something of the underworld.

et - and.
omnis - All. Ending is in agreement with lingua, which it modifies.
lingua - Tongue. Subject of the verb confiteatur.
confiteatur - may it confess. The verb is confiteor/confiteri/confessus - to confess or acknowledge. We have here a subjunctive, expressing desire or wish.

quia - since
Dominus - the Lord. Subject of the verb est.
Jesus  - Jesus. Nominative, to go with Dominus.
Christus - Christ. Nominative, to go with Dominus.
in - in
gloria - the glory. Ablative case to follow in.
est - is.
Dei - of God. Genitive case.
Patris - of the Father. Genitive case.

Domine - O Lord! Vocative case.
Dominus - Lord
noster - our. Modifies Dominus.
quam - how 
admirabile - admirable. The ending is neuter, to go with nomen, which it modifies.
est - is.
nomen - name. Nominative case, as the complement of the verb est.
tuum - your/thy. Modifies nomen.
in - in.
universa - the whole. Adjective modifying terra. In the ablative to agree with terra.
terra - the earth. Ablative case to follow in.

Grammatical Notes.

1. Gender of Nouns.

Latin nouns have a gender - masculine, feminine, or neuter. (A small number are common, i.e. can be either). Some are obvious, e.g. names of men are masculine, and of women feminine, but otherwise it isn't usually obvious.

There are trends, as these schoolboy rhymes indicate:
"A Man, a name of People, and a Wind,
River or Mountain, Masculine we find."
"A Woman, Island, Country, Tree,
and City, Feminine we see."

You can always find the gender if you need it from a dictionary. The main use I want to highlight now, is that when a noun is modified by an adjective, the ending of the adjective changes according to the gender of the noun.

2. Agreement of Adjectives.

The ending of adjectives modifies according to the case, number, and gender of its noun.

In today's introit we have:
omne genu - every knee. Genu (knee) is neuter (and singular and nominative)
omnis lingua - every tongue. Lingua (tongue) is feminine (and singular and nominative).

Consider the following different forms of omnis (every):
Omnis homo amat Deum - every man loves God. (Masculine, singular, nominative)
Deus amat omnem hominem - God loves every man. (Masculine, singular, accusative)
Deus amatur  omnibus hominibus - God is loved by all men. (Masculine, plural, ablative)
Omnes pueri ab amant libros - All boys love books. (Masculine, plural, nominative)
Libri amantur ab omnibus pueris - Books are loved by all boys. (Masculine, plural, ablative)
Petrus amat omnia animalia - Peter loves all animals. (Neuter, plural, accusative)

3. Declension of nouns. (1st and 2nd)

There are five basic patterns followed by the endings of nouns, which are called the five declensions. Some are irregular, either in some cases only or entirely.

The first two, which are very common, are as follows.

i) First declension for nouns ending in -a (usually feminine)

Nominative singular: ecclesia (church)
Vocative singular: ecclesia
Accusative singular: ecclesiam
Genitive singular: ecclesiae
Dative singular: ecclesiae
Ablative singular: ecclesia

Nominative plural: ecclesiae
Vocative plural: ecclesiae
Accusative plural: ecclesias
Genitive plural: ecclesiarum
Dative plural: ecclesiis
Ablative plural: ecclesiis

ii) Second declension for nouns ending in -us (usually masculine)

Nominative singular: dominus (lord)
Vocative singular: domine
Accusative singular: dominum
Genitive singular: domini
Dative singular: domino
Ablative singular: domino

Nominative plural: domini
Vocative plural: domini
Accusative plural: dominos
Genitive plural: dominorum
Dative plural: dominis
Ablative plural: dominis

iii) Second declension for neuter nouns ending in -um
(Notice that the first three cases are the same: -um in singular or -a in plural. Otherwise, it follows the pattern of dominus)

Nominative singular: bellum (war)
Vocative singular: bellum
Accusative singular: bellum
Genitive singular: belli
Dative singular: bello
Ablative singular: bello

Nominative plural: bella
Vocative plural: bella
Accusative plural: bella
Genitive plural: bellorum
Dative plural: bellis
Ablative plural: bellis

Litany of the Holy Name of Jesus

Litany of the Holy Name of Jesus

V. Lord, have mercy on us.
R. Christ, have mercy on us.
V. Lord, have mercy on us. 
V. Jesus, hear us.
R. Jesus, graciously hear us.
V. God the Father of Heaven
R. Have mercy on us.
V. God the Son, Redeemer of the world,
R. Have mercy on us.
V. God the Holy Ghost,
R. Have mercy on us.
V. Holy Trinity, one God,
R. Have mercy on us.
V. Jesus, Son of the living God, R. Have mercy on us.
Jesus, splendour of the Father,
Jesus, brightness of eternal light.
Jesus, King of glory.
Jesus, sun of justice.
Jesus, Son of the Virgin Mary.
Jesus, most amiable.
Jesus, most admirable.
Jesus, the mighty God.
Jesus, Father of the world to come.
Jesus, angel of great counsel.
Jesus, most powerful.
Jesus, most patient.
Jesus, most obedient.
Jesus, meek and humble of heart.
Jesus, lover of chastity.
Jesus, lover of us.
Jesus, God of peace.
Jesus, author of life.
Jesus, example of virtues.
Jesus, zealous lover of souls.
Jesus, our God.
Jesus, our refuge.
Jesus, father of the poor.
Jesus, treasure of the faithful.
Jesus, good Shepherd.
Jesus, true light.
Jesus, eternal wisdom.
Jesus, infinite goodness.
Jesus, our way and our life.
Jesus, joy of Angels.
Jesus, King of the Patriarchs.
Jesus, Master of the Apostles.
Jesus, teacher of the Evangelists.
Jesus, strength of Martyrs.
Jesus, light of Confessors.
Jesus, purity of Virgins.
Jesus, crown of Saints.

V. Be merciful, R. spare us, O Jesus.
V. Be merciful, R. graciously hear us, O Jesus.

V. From all evil, R. deliver us, O Jesus.
From all sin, deliver us, O Jesus.
From Thy wrath,
From the snares of the devil.
From the spirit of fornication.
From everlasting death.
From the neglect of Thy inspirations.
By the mystery of Thy holy Incarnation.
By Thy Nativity.
By Thy Infancy.
By Thy most divine Life.
By Thy labours.
By Thy agony and passion.
By Thy cross and dereliction.
By Thy sufferings.
By Thy death and burial.
By Thy Resurrection.
By Thy Ascension.
By Thy institution of the most Holy Eucharist.
By Thy joys.
By Thy glory.

V. Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world,
R. spare us, O Jesus.
V. Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world,
R. graciously hear us, O Jesus.
V. Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world,
R. have mercy on us, O Jesus.

V. Jesus, hear us.
R. Jesus, graciously hear us.

Let us pray.
O Lord Jesus Christ, Thou hast said, "Ask and you shall receive, seek, and you shall find, knock, and it shall be opened to you." Grant, we beg of Thee, to us who ask it, the gift of Thy most divine love, that we may ever love Thee with our whole heart, in word and deed, and never cease praising Thee.

Give us, O Lord, as much a lasting fear as a lasting love of Thy Holy Name, for Thou, who livest and are King for ever and ever, never failest to govern those whom Thou hast solidly established in Thy love. 
R. Amen.

This litany has been in use for over 500 years, having been composed by the Franciscan Saints Bernardine of Siena and John Capistrano. In 1585 Pope Sixtus V, on appeal of the Carmelites, attached an indulgence of 300 days for recitation of this litany. In 1862 that Pope Pius IX approved one of the several versions for public use, and in 1886 Pope Leo XIII extended the public and solemn use of this litany to the world.

Indulgence of seven years, with a Plenary under the usual conditions, if said daily together with the prayer, for one month.

Saturday 1 January 2011

Latina Vulgata: Latin Words no. 1

Abluo/abluere/ablui/ablutum - to wash, or wash away.

Verb of the third conjugation.
Link to the English word, 'ablutions.'

Et haec quidam fuistis. sed abluti estis: sed sanctificati estis: sed iustificati estis: in nomine Domini nostri Iesu Christi et in Spiritu Dei nostri.
And such some of you were. But you are washed: but you are sanctified: but you are justified: in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ and the Spirit of our God.
1 Cor 6:11 - perfect passive, 'you have been washed.'

Accedamus cum vero corde in plenitudine fidei, aspersi corda a conscientia mala, et abluti corpus aqua munda.
Let us draw near with a true heart, in fulness of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with clean water.
Hebrews 10:22 - past participle, 'having washed.'

Et nunc quid moraris exsurge baptizare et ablue peccata tua invocato nomine ipsius.
And now why tarriest thou? Rise up and be baptized and wash away thy sins, invoking his name.
Acts 22:16 - imperative, 'wash away'

Ad quos respondi quia non est consuetudo Romanis donare aliquem hominem priusquam is qui accusatur praesentes habeat accusatores locumque defendendi accipiat ad abluenda crimina.
To whom I answered: it is not the custom of the Romans to condemn any man, before that he who is accused have his accusers present and have liberty to make his answer, to clear himself of the things laid to his charge.
Romans 25:16 - Gerundive. The meaning here is figurative, 'to disprove' an accusation.